Category Timber-Framed, Buildings of England

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Replacement of wattle-and-daub

More satisfactory is the use of some form of lightweight infill panels which add little weight to the frame and which can at the same time incorporate some thermal insulation to the walls, which will certainly be desirable. A method used at the Avoncroft Museum at Bromsgrove, when re-erecting timber-framed building using both traditional tech­niques and modern materials, has much to recommend it. The wattle is replaced with new, formed of impregnated hazel onto which a daub (of eight parts of clay, one part lime and one part cow-dung) is applied to the face. This coat is then scratched to form a key for a skim coat consisting of equal parts of sand and lime with some cement added in the proportion ЪУг. ЪУг. 1, and the panel is then limewashed...

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Timber Repairs using Epoxy Resins

In the last few years there has been an increase in the use of epoxy resins in timber-framed repairs, despite some reservations by such bodies as the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings. Its use should be restricted to situations where traditional repairs in timber are not desirable or practicable – for instance, where it would cause undue disruption to the fabric of the building or where access is difficult or for reasons of economy. Although there is concern that the resin can deface the timber and cause condensation, with subsequent rot and insect-attack to the adjacent timber, the joint is very strong, and though one might expect any thermal or stress movement to occur

here, in practice any such movement occurs with the structural joints.

Its principal use is in end-beam re...

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Repair of floors

tenon in the mortice. If the end of the joist is badly decayed, it should be cut back to sound timber and a new piece provided scarfed and bolted to the existing joist one end and the tenons re-cut the other end to suit the existing mortices. More likely, however, is that the joint has come apart and needs support, and this can be achieved by the introduction of a steel shoe or strap, the design depending largely on the position of the joists.

A similar problem arises when the joint between either the bridge joists or binder and the storey post is defective. Here, however, the end of the joist can be supported on an oak bracket bolted to the storey post...

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Joints used in repair

to repair them. When the decision is to repair them, the defective timber should be cut away until sound timber is reached and, in the case of studs, new timbers scarfed and skew-pegged. In the case of the main post, a scissor-scarf joint is recommended. In some cases only part of the sill-beam will need replacing, and in this case the defective length should be removed and replaced with new, an ideal joint in this situation being the bridle-scarf joint. Thin sections, such as struts and braces, should be half-lapped scarf joints preferably ‘sallied’ and pegged or bolted. New braces can be fitted with the use of wedged tenons.

A problem which often arises is when a new stud is required, either because it is defective or because it has been removed at some earlier date, but the adjoini...

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Repairs to Timber-Wall Framing

Although deterioration of timber-framing due to infestation is com­mon, particularly in thin structural members such as braces, rot is the worst enemy. It is to be found in the sill-beams, the feet of the main posts and studs, and the upper surface of horizontal members on external walls, together with feet of braces and studs, and the joints between horizontal beams such as bridging joists, binders and girths with posts.

It is not of course a difficult matter to underpin a timber frame. Shorting can be applied to the girth or other suitable horizontal members, and the sill-beam can be disengaged from the posts and studs, removed and replaced with a new oak sill with mortices cut to engage the old tenons...

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