Category Integrated Buildings


Critical Technical Issues


The need for constant communication in a continuous market room and the ability to expand it to three times its initial size dominated the Lloyd’s brief. There was also the difficulty of dealing with internal circulation loads, espe­cially at peak times like the daily lunch exodus from the building. Productivity issues dictated a high level of occu­pant comfort. Finally, the solution had to be flexible enough to change function from office to market and back again without disrupting ongoing activities.

As the design emerged, the magnitude of internal heat gain from people, lights, and equipment soared above the conventional 3 or 4 W/ft2 all the way past 13 W/ft2 in the market room and over 12 W/ft2 in the office areas...

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LLOYD’S OF LONDON, 1979-1984

London, England

Richard Rogers Partnership

Richard Rogers and Partners’ design for the 1984 Lloyd’s of London Insurance building is a response to the client’s need for flexible space to accommodate its growing needs over the next 50 years. From a systems integration per­spective, it is among the most spectacular realizations of Louis Kahn’s “served and servant spaces” scheme.

Lloyd’s modernity is set against the medieval streets of old London in a stylistic juxtaposition reminiscent of the Pompidou Centre in central Paris. Its image has also been likened to the North Sea oil platforms as an emulation of technical clarity, as an homage to Lloyd’s wealthy oil com­pany clients, or both...

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Norwich, East Anglia, England Norman Foster & Partners

The Sainsbury Centre probably represents the first promi­nent use of insulated cladding panels for a public institu­tion. Its efficient shape and the adoption of industrial – quality building materials, not unlike those of the Boeing 737, have earned it the description of resembling some­thing between a dirigible airship and a dirigible hangar. Wrapped into the building’s structural frame are the mechanical, utility, and service spaces along with a highly tuned daylighting system. Inside, the single-volume space brings together an art collection, a school of fine art, and an assortment of public spaces.

TABLE 10.4 Fact Sheet


Building Name




Sainsbury Centre for Visual Arts

Sir Robert ...

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Technical Integration Highlights


* Structural, movement, and servicing zones share physical space in the external wall frames.

* Underground parking and utility areas helped create a large urban plaza.


• Structural and service systems are the dominant visu­al features.

• Site, terrace, and circulation systems maximize views of the city.


• Flexibility is attained by the structural scheme and the inside-out servicing of the building.

• Isolating the escalator tube from the floor plates pro­vides for security and alternate accessibility to the restaurant.


Turning the building inside out was the most successfully realized architectural intention. The wall frames, with their captured servicing and movement systems, are unavoidably read as the corpus of the building...

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Critical Technical Issues


Art museums and cultural libraries are first dominated by concerns for their collections, and second, by accommo­dation of visitors as they roam through the facilities. Security, environmental control with an emphasis on humidity levels, artificial and natural lighting, circulation, and storage are all vital. Live load allowance for exhibit spaces was set at 102 lbs/ft2 (500 kg/m2)

As a national culture center, Beaubourg would also have significant popular importance and serve as a nerve center for the country’s artistic interests. Gestures of great magnitude were required to recognize and serve the high status of the building’s prominent position.

Finally, Centre Pompidou is a museum of modern art...

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