Category Timber-Framed, Buildings of England

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Repair of Timber-Framed Buildings

Although some repair work is undertaken under the supervision and direction of an architect or building surveyor with knowledge of the repair of timber-framed structures, most of the repairing and adapting of these buildings is undertaken, with little or no professional assist­ance, by local builders who in many cases follow the instructions of their clients. Before leaving the subject of timber-framed buildings it might, therefore, be appropriate to say something about the repair of these structures to assist those people contemplating such work either by themselves or with the aid of a builder.

First, one must distinguish between the terms ‘repair’ and ‘resto­ration’, both frequently used in connection with old buildings but meaning very different things and having very different effect...

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Isaac Lord’s Warehouse, Ipswich, Suffolk

arrangement must have been a common feature in many parts in Tudor England.

Maltings

In eastern England makings are a familiar sight, although they, like other such buildings, are being either demolished or converted into other uses. Although the majority are of brick, there were some that were constructed of timber. Most of these would have been nineteenth-century, but at Myddlyton Place, Saffron Walden, Essex (206), there still survives a building which at one time was used as a making. Its original purpose is unknown for it is not characteristic of any building type so far recognized in Essex. One suggestion is that it was originally a guildhall, the shop to the front let to provide additional

Isaac Lord’s Warehouse, Ipswich, Suffolk

206. Former malting, Saffron Walden, Essex

income, as at Felsted...

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Shalford Mill, Surrey

201. Coggeshall Mill, Essex

Shalford Mill, Surrey

wheels, a more sophisticated arrangement than those built beside their streams with the wheel outside.

While corn-milling was the primary function of most water-mills, in some areas from the thirteenth to the eighteenth century the fulling trade was equally important. A large number of the water-mills were built or rebuilt as fulling mills to be converted to cornmills by the end of the eighteenth century as the cloth industry died out and the demand for bread increased. Some water-mills carried out both trades. Although corn-milling and fulling were their principal uses,

Shalford Mill, Surrey

mills were often put to crushing seeds for oil and the pulping rags for paper.

Not all water-mills used rivers to drive the wheels: in some coastal areas tidal-power was used...

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Great Chishill Mill, Cambridgeshire

enden and Rolvenden, both in Kent, Kibworth Harcourt, Leicester­shire, Drinkstone, a typical west Suffolk mill, Friston and Framsden, both in Suffolk, Reigate Heath, Surrey, and in Sussex those at Clayton, Argos Hill, Hogg Hill, Icklesham and Cross-in-Hand.

The construction of the postmill varied little in principle from other timber-framed buildings but greatly in detail. Oak was the principal timber used, although in Sussex pitch pine was a popular alternative

Great Chishill Mill, Cambridgeshire

196. Cat and Fiddle Mill, Dale Abbey, Derbyshire

(Clayton and Argos Hill). The body of a postmill is carried and pivoted on a massive central post called the ‘main post’, about which the body of the mill revolves...

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Pitstone Windmill, Buckinghamshire

Mill, which has been re-erected at the Avoncroft Museum of Building. There are several others which have been restored in recent years, among the finest being those at Stevington, Bedfordshire, Brill, Buck­inghamshire, Great Chishill, Cambridgeshire (195), Cat and Fiddle Mill, Dale Abbey, Derbyshire (196), Aythorpe Roding, Bocking, Mountnessing and Ramsey, all in Essex, Cromer, Hertfordshire, Chill-

Pitstone Windmill, Buckinghamshire

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